MUSEUM OF ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI
“The nude” is an important facet of the artistic tradition dating back to ancient times, making the
unclothed figure unavoidable in a comprehensive consideration of art. Artists included in the Museum’s
permanent collection have frequently used the nude figure. A challenging aspect of leading tours is
helping visitors understand and intelligently appreciate nudity in art. It is sometimes a difficult subject
regardless of the age of the tour group! You know your students/children best, so you know the best way
to talk to them prior to a visit to the Museum.
Nudity can be discussed in terms of the reasons artists choose to portray the human body or form without
- The human form is beautiful, making it an ideal subject for art.
- The human body can be expressive. It may be used to express a full range of emotions and
feelings to which the viewers can relate. Young museum visitors might be encouraged to recreate
the subject’s pose in hopes of better understanding the expressive qualities of the work, perhaps
taking their minds off the fact that the subject is unclothed. A possible subject for open-ended
discussion for older visitors is the difference between “nudity” and “nakedness.”
- The human form is part of the commonality which holds the human race together. It is familiar to
all peoples regardless of background, sex, education, culture, or ethnic identity. Thus, artists often
use the human form in their art to express universal truths and to address those ideas or concepts
which bind all human beings together.
- Because of our familiarity with the human form, artists can use it to symbolize human values, e.g.,
a pregnant woman or nursing mother often symbolizes innocence. Also, artists can use distortion
of the body or simplification of human form to achieve an emotional recognition and intellectual
response to the artwork from the viewer because of our immediate identification with the human
- The human body contains variations of all geometric shapes such as the cylinder, the sphere, the
cone, the cube, etc., making it an ideal subject for exercises in rendering and demonstrating artistic
ability and creativity. The body is viewed as a design form of shapes, highlights, and shadows.
- The human body is anatomically consistent, which makes it a good subject to represent
realistically. Throughout history artists have gone to great lengths, including dissection, to
examine human anatomy in order to achieve artistic accuracy.
Creating Flesh Tones for Oil Painting
Anita Giddings and Sherry Stone Clifton are award-winning artist-educators who have made careers out of teaching beginning artists of all aspirations.
Human skin is made up of reds, yellows, and blues — the primary colors. When you mix the primary colors together in the right proportions, you get a rich, natural brown. Depending on the darkness of the skin, you may also use titanium white to bring out the contours of the face and the highlights on the skin. So, now the only issue is which of the reds, yellows, and blues to use:
- Yellows: Yellow ochre is a wonderful old color that’s been used as an art pigment since the beginning of human history. You can also use raw umber or burnt umber for dark skin.
- Reds: Cadmium red light is perfect for a florid complexion, and alizarin crimson works well for dark skin tones. Examine the reds that you see in the lips; try to determine whether you see orange-reds or red-violets and then experiment!
- Blues: Ultramarine blue is a warm blue that works well to dull the brilliance of the red and yellow. When you mix in the blue, the result is a natural-looking skin color.
- Titanium white: This is the perfect white to use. The old masters used lead white, but you should avoid it because of its toxicity.
For lighter skin types, you can start by adding small amounts of cadmium red light to yellow ochre until you have a bright orange color. Check the orange against the skin tone you’re painting and modify it if it needs to be more red or yellow. Add white until you have a color similar to what you see on the inside of the arm or the lower portion of the cheek. Your mixture will be close to what you want, but the color will be extremely bright, like stage makeup. Add just a touch of ultramarine blue until you have something that looks more natural.
For darker skin tones, start the same way, checking your orange against the skin tone that you’re painting to see whether it leans toward red or yellow. Then, rather than adding white at this point, start adding ultramarine blue until you have a color near the value of the skin tone that you’re looking for. Finally, add white to lighten the color and make it look more natural. You can also experiment with using raw umber and burnt umber in your mixtures.
The main mistake that people make when working with darker skin tones is relying solely on white to lighten the color. White may make the color too dull and ashen to look natural for many people. Keep a stock of your orange set aside to brighten the color if it becomes too dull as you lighten it.
Shadows are inherently blue in hue. Meaning that blue is the general color for most shadows. Most of us think of shadows as being black, however black is a neutral color. The hue of shadow is in fact blue.